Other

Without a Form of Currency, Ancient Mesopotamian Workers Were Paid in Beer Rations

Without a Form of Currency, Ancient Mesopotamian Workers Were Paid in Beer Rations


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

A 5,000-year-old clay tablet from the British Museum depicts a worker getting paid in the delicious malted beverage

Tablets like this depict the world's oldest work-for-beer programs.

Barflies everywhere might be looking for a time machine back to ancient Mesopotamia.

A clay tablet from 5,000 years ago shows workers getting paid for their sweat in daily beer rations. We already know of other historical eras where workers were paid in beer—pyramid builders were paid four to five liters per day — but the remarkable aspect of this is the age of the tablet, dating back to 3300 BC, which places it among the earliest written records to survive until the present day.

The tablet displays a system called cuneiform. The system helped Mesopotamians — who lived in modern-day Iraq — to keep track of payments, trades, and other transactions. As a British official marvels (in the manner only Brits can): “What’s amazing for me is that this is a society where the economy is in its first stages, there is no currency, no money.

“So how do they get around that? Well, the symbols tell us that they have used beer – beer glorious beer, I think that is absolutely tremendous; there is no liquidity crisis here, they are coming up with a different way of getting around the problem of the absence of a currency and at the same time sorting out how to have a functioning state."

Given their long-standing love affair with old beer, it’s no surprise that the English are absolutely delighted with this idea — in fact, most of them probably wish they could be paid like this today!

Regardless, the curators at the British Museum will continue to study the 130,000 similar tablets they have, within which hopefully lies rules to games they played to make their wages disappear.


A History Of The World In 6 Glasses

1.) What is the author's main thesis (argument) in setting up his book? Why/how are these fluids “vital” ?

The author wants to show that beverages had a great impact on history. He wants to tell his

readers that drinks have had a greater impact on history than normally recognized. The fluids are

“vital” because without them, humans wouldn't have accomplished so much. Fluids allowed people to

farm, think, trade, and survive.

“Beer in Mesopotamia and Egypt” (Chapters 1 & 2)

1.) How might beer have influenced the transition from hunting and gathering (Paleolithic) to agricultural-based (Neolithic) societies ?

Beer played a big role in the acceptance of agriculture. Humans began growing grains for beer,

and this led to the growing of other crops. Civilizations formed, due to food surplus and specialized

labor. People settled near the farming areas, and crops became part of their daily meals.

2.) What does the story of beer tell you about social and gender roles in ancient SW Asia and Egypt?

Beer was used as a form of currency. It was measured in sila, which is equivalent to one liter.

People were given sila based on their social ranking. Senior officials received the most. Ladies of the

court received a bit less than senior officials. Junior officials received even less. Women and children

received the least. Soldiers, policeman, and scribes also were given sila for their work. This shows that

people were not treated equally.

3.) Would the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt have been as prosperous without the discovery of beer ? Support your answer with evidence from the text.

No, the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt would not be prosperous without beer.

According to the text, bread and beer “were convenient and widespread forms of payment and

currency.” Without a currency, the civilizations would not have been organized, and they wouldn't

“Wine in Greece and Rome” (Chapters 3 & 4)

1.) What does the story of wine tell you about social and gender roles in the Mediterranean world ? How did this change over time ?

The story of wine tells me that the people of Nimrud were not treated equally. Rations of wine

were only given to about six thousand people in the royal household. High officials received the most.

However, every worker of the household would receive wine. This changed when wine became

a drink for Christians. In Greece and Rome, everyone was able to drink wine, including slaves.

2.) What effect does wine have on the development of Christianity and of Islam (separately) ?

Wine had a positive effect on Christianity. According to the Bible, Jesus' first miracle was when

he transformed six jars of water into wine. Also, he often spoke about wine in his parables. At the Last

Supper, he offered wine to his disciples. That lead to the role of wine in the Eucharist, where wine

represents the blood of Christ, and bread represents his body.

On the other hand, wine had a negative effect on the development of Islam. Muslims are not

allowed to drink wine, or an alcoholic beverages. According to tradition, this is because two of

Muhammad's disciples got into a fight during a drinking party. In the Islamic world, alcohol is

associated with evil and Satan.

“Spirits in the Colonial Period” (Chapters 5 & 6)

1.) How did spirits advance/ accelerate colonialism ?

Spirits were able to be traded easily. They were compact, which allowed them to be shipped

without trouble. They were very important goods for trade. When the.

Please join StudyMode to read the full document


A History Of The World In 6 Glasses

1.) What is the author's main thesis (argument) in setting up his book? Why/how are these fluids “vital” ?

The author wants to show that beverages had a great impact on history. He wants to tell his

readers that drinks have had a greater impact on history than normally recognized. The fluids are

“vital” because without them, humans wouldn't have accomplished so much. Fluids allowed people to

farm, think, trade, and survive.

“Beer in Mesopotamia and Egypt” (Chapters 1 & 2)

1.) How might beer have influenced the transition from hunting and gathering (Paleolithic) to agricultural-based (Neolithic) societies ?

Beer played a big role in the acceptance of agriculture. Humans began growing grains for beer,

and this led to the growing of other crops. Civilizations formed, due to food surplus and specialized

labor. People settled near the farming areas, and crops became part of their daily meals.

2.) What does the story of beer tell you about social and gender roles in ancient SW Asia and Egypt?

Beer was used as a form of currency. It was measured in sila, which is equivalent to one liter.

People were given sila based on their social ranking. Senior officials received the most. Ladies of the

court received a bit less than senior officials. Junior officials received even less. Women and children

received the least. Soldiers, policeman, and scribes also were given sila for their work. This shows that

people were not treated equally.

3.) Would the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt have been as prosperous without the discovery of beer ? Support your answer with evidence from the text.

No, the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt would not be prosperous without beer.

According to the text, bread and beer “were convenient and widespread forms of payment and

currency.” Without a currency, the civilizations would not have been organized, and they wouldn't

“Wine in Greece and Rome” (Chapters 3 & 4)

1.) What does the story of wine tell you about social and gender roles in the Mediterranean world ? How did this change over time ?

The story of wine tells me that the people of Nimrud were not treated equally. Rations of wine

were only given to about six thousand people in the royal household. High officials received the most.

However, every worker of the household would receive wine. This changed when wine became

a drink for Christians. In Greece and Rome, everyone was able to drink wine, including slaves.

2.) What effect does wine have on the development of Christianity and of Islam (separately) ?

Wine had a positive effect on Christianity. According to the Bible, Jesus' first miracle was when

he transformed six jars of water into wine. Also, he often spoke about wine in his parables. At the Last

Supper, he offered wine to his disciples. That lead to the role of wine in the Eucharist, where wine

represents the blood of Christ, and bread represents his body.

On the other hand, wine had a negative effect on the development of Islam. Muslims are not

allowed to drink wine, or an alcoholic beverages. According to tradition, this is because two of

Muhammad's disciples got into a fight during a drinking party. In the Islamic world, alcohol is

associated with evil and Satan.

“Spirits in the Colonial Period” (Chapters 5 & 6)

1.) How did spirits advance/ accelerate colonialism ?

Spirits were able to be traded easily. They were compact, which allowed them to be shipped

without trouble. They were very important goods for trade. When the.

Please join StudyMode to read the full document


A History Of The World In 6 Glasses

1.) What is the author's main thesis (argument) in setting up his book? Why/how are these fluids “vital” ?

The author wants to show that beverages had a great impact on history. He wants to tell his

readers that drinks have had a greater impact on history than normally recognized. The fluids are

“vital” because without them, humans wouldn't have accomplished so much. Fluids allowed people to

farm, think, trade, and survive.

“Beer in Mesopotamia and Egypt” (Chapters 1 & 2)

1.) How might beer have influenced the transition from hunting and gathering (Paleolithic) to agricultural-based (Neolithic) societies ?

Beer played a big role in the acceptance of agriculture. Humans began growing grains for beer,

and this led to the growing of other crops. Civilizations formed, due to food surplus and specialized

labor. People settled near the farming areas, and crops became part of their daily meals.

2.) What does the story of beer tell you about social and gender roles in ancient SW Asia and Egypt?

Beer was used as a form of currency. It was measured in sila, which is equivalent to one liter.

People were given sila based on their social ranking. Senior officials received the most. Ladies of the

court received a bit less than senior officials. Junior officials received even less. Women and children

received the least. Soldiers, policeman, and scribes also were given sila for their work. This shows that

people were not treated equally.

3.) Would the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt have been as prosperous without the discovery of beer ? Support your answer with evidence from the text.

No, the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt would not be prosperous without beer.

According to the text, bread and beer “were convenient and widespread forms of payment and

currency.” Without a currency, the civilizations would not have been organized, and they wouldn't

“Wine in Greece and Rome” (Chapters 3 & 4)

1.) What does the story of wine tell you about social and gender roles in the Mediterranean world ? How did this change over time ?

The story of wine tells me that the people of Nimrud were not treated equally. Rations of wine

were only given to about six thousand people in the royal household. High officials received the most.

However, every worker of the household would receive wine. This changed when wine became

a drink for Christians. In Greece and Rome, everyone was able to drink wine, including slaves.

2.) What effect does wine have on the development of Christianity and of Islam (separately) ?

Wine had a positive effect on Christianity. According to the Bible, Jesus' first miracle was when

he transformed six jars of water into wine. Also, he often spoke about wine in his parables. At the Last

Supper, he offered wine to his disciples. That lead to the role of wine in the Eucharist, where wine

represents the blood of Christ, and bread represents his body.

On the other hand, wine had a negative effect on the development of Islam. Muslims are not

allowed to drink wine, or an alcoholic beverages. According to tradition, this is because two of

Muhammad's disciples got into a fight during a drinking party. In the Islamic world, alcohol is

associated with evil and Satan.

“Spirits in the Colonial Period” (Chapters 5 & 6)

1.) How did spirits advance/ accelerate colonialism ?

Spirits were able to be traded easily. They were compact, which allowed them to be shipped

without trouble. They were very important goods for trade. When the.

Please join StudyMode to read the full document


A History Of The World In 6 Glasses

1.) What is the author's main thesis (argument) in setting up his book? Why/how are these fluids “vital” ?

The author wants to show that beverages had a great impact on history. He wants to tell his

readers that drinks have had a greater impact on history than normally recognized. The fluids are

“vital” because without them, humans wouldn't have accomplished so much. Fluids allowed people to

farm, think, trade, and survive.

“Beer in Mesopotamia and Egypt” (Chapters 1 & 2)

1.) How might beer have influenced the transition from hunting and gathering (Paleolithic) to agricultural-based (Neolithic) societies ?

Beer played a big role in the acceptance of agriculture. Humans began growing grains for beer,

and this led to the growing of other crops. Civilizations formed, due to food surplus and specialized

labor. People settled near the farming areas, and crops became part of their daily meals.

2.) What does the story of beer tell you about social and gender roles in ancient SW Asia and Egypt?

Beer was used as a form of currency. It was measured in sila, which is equivalent to one liter.

People were given sila based on their social ranking. Senior officials received the most. Ladies of the

court received a bit less than senior officials. Junior officials received even less. Women and children

received the least. Soldiers, policeman, and scribes also were given sila for their work. This shows that

people were not treated equally.

3.) Would the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt have been as prosperous without the discovery of beer ? Support your answer with evidence from the text.

No, the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt would not be prosperous without beer.

According to the text, bread and beer “were convenient and widespread forms of payment and

currency.” Without a currency, the civilizations would not have been organized, and they wouldn't

“Wine in Greece and Rome” (Chapters 3 & 4)

1.) What does the story of wine tell you about social and gender roles in the Mediterranean world ? How did this change over time ?

The story of wine tells me that the people of Nimrud were not treated equally. Rations of wine

were only given to about six thousand people in the royal household. High officials received the most.

However, every worker of the household would receive wine. This changed when wine became

a drink for Christians. In Greece and Rome, everyone was able to drink wine, including slaves.

2.) What effect does wine have on the development of Christianity and of Islam (separately) ?

Wine had a positive effect on Christianity. According to the Bible, Jesus' first miracle was when

he transformed six jars of water into wine. Also, he often spoke about wine in his parables. At the Last

Supper, he offered wine to his disciples. That lead to the role of wine in the Eucharist, where wine

represents the blood of Christ, and bread represents his body.

On the other hand, wine had a negative effect on the development of Islam. Muslims are not

allowed to drink wine, or an alcoholic beverages. According to tradition, this is because two of

Muhammad's disciples got into a fight during a drinking party. In the Islamic world, alcohol is

associated with evil and Satan.

“Spirits in the Colonial Period” (Chapters 5 & 6)

1.) How did spirits advance/ accelerate colonialism ?

Spirits were able to be traded easily. They were compact, which allowed them to be shipped

without trouble. They were very important goods for trade. When the.

Please join StudyMode to read the full document


A History Of The World In 6 Glasses

1.) What is the author's main thesis (argument) in setting up his book? Why/how are these fluids “vital” ?

The author wants to show that beverages had a great impact on history. He wants to tell his

readers that drinks have had a greater impact on history than normally recognized. The fluids are

“vital” because without them, humans wouldn't have accomplished so much. Fluids allowed people to

farm, think, trade, and survive.

“Beer in Mesopotamia and Egypt” (Chapters 1 & 2)

1.) How might beer have influenced the transition from hunting and gathering (Paleolithic) to agricultural-based (Neolithic) societies ?

Beer played a big role in the acceptance of agriculture. Humans began growing grains for beer,

and this led to the growing of other crops. Civilizations formed, due to food surplus and specialized

labor. People settled near the farming areas, and crops became part of their daily meals.

2.) What does the story of beer tell you about social and gender roles in ancient SW Asia and Egypt?

Beer was used as a form of currency. It was measured in sila, which is equivalent to one liter.

People were given sila based on their social ranking. Senior officials received the most. Ladies of the

court received a bit less than senior officials. Junior officials received even less. Women and children

received the least. Soldiers, policeman, and scribes also were given sila for their work. This shows that

people were not treated equally.

3.) Would the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt have been as prosperous without the discovery of beer ? Support your answer with evidence from the text.

No, the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt would not be prosperous without beer.

According to the text, bread and beer “were convenient and widespread forms of payment and

currency.” Without a currency, the civilizations would not have been organized, and they wouldn't

“Wine in Greece and Rome” (Chapters 3 & 4)

1.) What does the story of wine tell you about social and gender roles in the Mediterranean world ? How did this change over time ?

The story of wine tells me that the people of Nimrud were not treated equally. Rations of wine

were only given to about six thousand people in the royal household. High officials received the most.

However, every worker of the household would receive wine. This changed when wine became

a drink for Christians. In Greece and Rome, everyone was able to drink wine, including slaves.

2.) What effect does wine have on the development of Christianity and of Islam (separately) ?

Wine had a positive effect on Christianity. According to the Bible, Jesus' first miracle was when

he transformed six jars of water into wine. Also, he often spoke about wine in his parables. At the Last

Supper, he offered wine to his disciples. That lead to the role of wine in the Eucharist, where wine

represents the blood of Christ, and bread represents his body.

On the other hand, wine had a negative effect on the development of Islam. Muslims are not

allowed to drink wine, or an alcoholic beverages. According to tradition, this is because two of

Muhammad's disciples got into a fight during a drinking party. In the Islamic world, alcohol is

associated with evil and Satan.

“Spirits in the Colonial Period” (Chapters 5 & 6)

1.) How did spirits advance/ accelerate colonialism ?

Spirits were able to be traded easily. They were compact, which allowed them to be shipped

without trouble. They were very important goods for trade. When the.

Please join StudyMode to read the full document


A History Of The World In 6 Glasses

1.) What is the author's main thesis (argument) in setting up his book? Why/how are these fluids “vital” ?

The author wants to show that beverages had a great impact on history. He wants to tell his

readers that drinks have had a greater impact on history than normally recognized. The fluids are

“vital” because without them, humans wouldn't have accomplished so much. Fluids allowed people to

farm, think, trade, and survive.

“Beer in Mesopotamia and Egypt” (Chapters 1 & 2)

1.) How might beer have influenced the transition from hunting and gathering (Paleolithic) to agricultural-based (Neolithic) societies ?

Beer played a big role in the acceptance of agriculture. Humans began growing grains for beer,

and this led to the growing of other crops. Civilizations formed, due to food surplus and specialized

labor. People settled near the farming areas, and crops became part of their daily meals.

2.) What does the story of beer tell you about social and gender roles in ancient SW Asia and Egypt?

Beer was used as a form of currency. It was measured in sila, which is equivalent to one liter.

People were given sila based on their social ranking. Senior officials received the most. Ladies of the

court received a bit less than senior officials. Junior officials received even less. Women and children

received the least. Soldiers, policeman, and scribes also were given sila for their work. This shows that

people were not treated equally.

3.) Would the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt have been as prosperous without the discovery of beer ? Support your answer with evidence from the text.

No, the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt would not be prosperous without beer.

According to the text, bread and beer “were convenient and widespread forms of payment and

currency.” Without a currency, the civilizations would not have been organized, and they wouldn't

“Wine in Greece and Rome” (Chapters 3 & 4)

1.) What does the story of wine tell you about social and gender roles in the Mediterranean world ? How did this change over time ?

The story of wine tells me that the people of Nimrud were not treated equally. Rations of wine

were only given to about six thousand people in the royal household. High officials received the most.

However, every worker of the household would receive wine. This changed when wine became

a drink for Christians. In Greece and Rome, everyone was able to drink wine, including slaves.

2.) What effect does wine have on the development of Christianity and of Islam (separately) ?

Wine had a positive effect on Christianity. According to the Bible, Jesus' first miracle was when

he transformed six jars of water into wine. Also, he often spoke about wine in his parables. At the Last

Supper, he offered wine to his disciples. That lead to the role of wine in the Eucharist, where wine

represents the blood of Christ, and bread represents his body.

On the other hand, wine had a negative effect on the development of Islam. Muslims are not

allowed to drink wine, or an alcoholic beverages. According to tradition, this is because two of

Muhammad's disciples got into a fight during a drinking party. In the Islamic world, alcohol is

associated with evil and Satan.

“Spirits in the Colonial Period” (Chapters 5 & 6)

1.) How did spirits advance/ accelerate colonialism ?

Spirits were able to be traded easily. They were compact, which allowed them to be shipped

without trouble. They were very important goods for trade. When the.

Please join StudyMode to read the full document


A History Of The World In 6 Glasses

1.) What is the author's main thesis (argument) in setting up his book? Why/how are these fluids “vital” ?

The author wants to show that beverages had a great impact on history. He wants to tell his

readers that drinks have had a greater impact on history than normally recognized. The fluids are

“vital” because without them, humans wouldn't have accomplished so much. Fluids allowed people to

farm, think, trade, and survive.

“Beer in Mesopotamia and Egypt” (Chapters 1 & 2)

1.) How might beer have influenced the transition from hunting and gathering (Paleolithic) to agricultural-based (Neolithic) societies ?

Beer played a big role in the acceptance of agriculture. Humans began growing grains for beer,

and this led to the growing of other crops. Civilizations formed, due to food surplus and specialized

labor. People settled near the farming areas, and crops became part of their daily meals.

2.) What does the story of beer tell you about social and gender roles in ancient SW Asia and Egypt?

Beer was used as a form of currency. It was measured in sila, which is equivalent to one liter.

People were given sila based on their social ranking. Senior officials received the most. Ladies of the

court received a bit less than senior officials. Junior officials received even less. Women and children

received the least. Soldiers, policeman, and scribes also were given sila for their work. This shows that

people were not treated equally.

3.) Would the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt have been as prosperous without the discovery of beer ? Support your answer with evidence from the text.

No, the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt would not be prosperous without beer.

According to the text, bread and beer “were convenient and widespread forms of payment and

currency.” Without a currency, the civilizations would not have been organized, and they wouldn't

“Wine in Greece and Rome” (Chapters 3 & 4)

1.) What does the story of wine tell you about social and gender roles in the Mediterranean world ? How did this change over time ?

The story of wine tells me that the people of Nimrud were not treated equally. Rations of wine

were only given to about six thousand people in the royal household. High officials received the most.

However, every worker of the household would receive wine. This changed when wine became

a drink for Christians. In Greece and Rome, everyone was able to drink wine, including slaves.

2.) What effect does wine have on the development of Christianity and of Islam (separately) ?

Wine had a positive effect on Christianity. According to the Bible, Jesus' first miracle was when

he transformed six jars of water into wine. Also, he often spoke about wine in his parables. At the Last

Supper, he offered wine to his disciples. That lead to the role of wine in the Eucharist, where wine

represents the blood of Christ, and bread represents his body.

On the other hand, wine had a negative effect on the development of Islam. Muslims are not

allowed to drink wine, or an alcoholic beverages. According to tradition, this is because two of

Muhammad's disciples got into a fight during a drinking party. In the Islamic world, alcohol is

associated with evil and Satan.

“Spirits in the Colonial Period” (Chapters 5 & 6)

1.) How did spirits advance/ accelerate colonialism ?

Spirits were able to be traded easily. They were compact, which allowed them to be shipped

without trouble. They were very important goods for trade. When the.

Please join StudyMode to read the full document


A History Of The World In 6 Glasses

1.) What is the author's main thesis (argument) in setting up his book? Why/how are these fluids “vital” ?

The author wants to show that beverages had a great impact on history. He wants to tell his

readers that drinks have had a greater impact on history than normally recognized. The fluids are

“vital” because without them, humans wouldn't have accomplished so much. Fluids allowed people to

farm, think, trade, and survive.

“Beer in Mesopotamia and Egypt” (Chapters 1 & 2)

1.) How might beer have influenced the transition from hunting and gathering (Paleolithic) to agricultural-based (Neolithic) societies ?

Beer played a big role in the acceptance of agriculture. Humans began growing grains for beer,

and this led to the growing of other crops. Civilizations formed, due to food surplus and specialized

labor. People settled near the farming areas, and crops became part of their daily meals.

2.) What does the story of beer tell you about social and gender roles in ancient SW Asia and Egypt?

Beer was used as a form of currency. It was measured in sila, which is equivalent to one liter.

People were given sila based on their social ranking. Senior officials received the most. Ladies of the

court received a bit less than senior officials. Junior officials received even less. Women and children

received the least. Soldiers, policeman, and scribes also were given sila for their work. This shows that

people were not treated equally.

3.) Would the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt have been as prosperous without the discovery of beer ? Support your answer with evidence from the text.

No, the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt would not be prosperous without beer.

According to the text, bread and beer “were convenient and widespread forms of payment and

currency.” Without a currency, the civilizations would not have been organized, and they wouldn't

“Wine in Greece and Rome” (Chapters 3 & 4)

1.) What does the story of wine tell you about social and gender roles in the Mediterranean world ? How did this change over time ?

The story of wine tells me that the people of Nimrud were not treated equally. Rations of wine

were only given to about six thousand people in the royal household. High officials received the most.

However, every worker of the household would receive wine. This changed when wine became

a drink for Christians. In Greece and Rome, everyone was able to drink wine, including slaves.

2.) What effect does wine have on the development of Christianity and of Islam (separately) ?

Wine had a positive effect on Christianity. According to the Bible, Jesus' first miracle was when

he transformed six jars of water into wine. Also, he often spoke about wine in his parables. At the Last

Supper, he offered wine to his disciples. That lead to the role of wine in the Eucharist, where wine

represents the blood of Christ, and bread represents his body.

On the other hand, wine had a negative effect on the development of Islam. Muslims are not

allowed to drink wine, or an alcoholic beverages. According to tradition, this is because two of

Muhammad's disciples got into a fight during a drinking party. In the Islamic world, alcohol is

associated with evil and Satan.

“Spirits in the Colonial Period” (Chapters 5 & 6)

1.) How did spirits advance/ accelerate colonialism ?

Spirits were able to be traded easily. They were compact, which allowed them to be shipped

without trouble. They were very important goods for trade. When the.

Please join StudyMode to read the full document


A History Of The World In 6 Glasses

1.) What is the author's main thesis (argument) in setting up his book? Why/how are these fluids “vital” ?

The author wants to show that beverages had a great impact on history. He wants to tell his

readers that drinks have had a greater impact on history than normally recognized. The fluids are

“vital” because without them, humans wouldn't have accomplished so much. Fluids allowed people to

farm, think, trade, and survive.

“Beer in Mesopotamia and Egypt” (Chapters 1 & 2)

1.) How might beer have influenced the transition from hunting and gathering (Paleolithic) to agricultural-based (Neolithic) societies ?

Beer played a big role in the acceptance of agriculture. Humans began growing grains for beer,

and this led to the growing of other crops. Civilizations formed, due to food surplus and specialized

labor. People settled near the farming areas, and crops became part of their daily meals.

2.) What does the story of beer tell you about social and gender roles in ancient SW Asia and Egypt?

Beer was used as a form of currency. It was measured in sila, which is equivalent to one liter.

People were given sila based on their social ranking. Senior officials received the most. Ladies of the

court received a bit less than senior officials. Junior officials received even less. Women and children

received the least. Soldiers, policeman, and scribes also were given sila for their work. This shows that

people were not treated equally.

3.) Would the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt have been as prosperous without the discovery of beer ? Support your answer with evidence from the text.

No, the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt would not be prosperous without beer.

According to the text, bread and beer “were convenient and widespread forms of payment and

currency.” Without a currency, the civilizations would not have been organized, and they wouldn't

“Wine in Greece and Rome” (Chapters 3 & 4)

1.) What does the story of wine tell you about social and gender roles in the Mediterranean world ? How did this change over time ?

The story of wine tells me that the people of Nimrud were not treated equally. Rations of wine

were only given to about six thousand people in the royal household. High officials received the most.

However, every worker of the household would receive wine. This changed when wine became

a drink for Christians. In Greece and Rome, everyone was able to drink wine, including slaves.

2.) What effect does wine have on the development of Christianity and of Islam (separately) ?

Wine had a positive effect on Christianity. According to the Bible, Jesus' first miracle was when

he transformed six jars of water into wine. Also, he often spoke about wine in his parables. At the Last

Supper, he offered wine to his disciples. That lead to the role of wine in the Eucharist, where wine

represents the blood of Christ, and bread represents his body.

On the other hand, wine had a negative effect on the development of Islam. Muslims are not

allowed to drink wine, or an alcoholic beverages. According to tradition, this is because two of

Muhammad's disciples got into a fight during a drinking party. In the Islamic world, alcohol is

associated with evil and Satan.

“Spirits in the Colonial Period” (Chapters 5 & 6)

1.) How did spirits advance/ accelerate colonialism ?

Spirits were able to be traded easily. They were compact, which allowed them to be shipped

without trouble. They were very important goods for trade. When the.

Please join StudyMode to read the full document


A History Of The World In 6 Glasses

1.) What is the author's main thesis (argument) in setting up his book? Why/how are these fluids “vital” ?

The author wants to show that beverages had a great impact on history. He wants to tell his

readers that drinks have had a greater impact on history than normally recognized. The fluids are

“vital” because without them, humans wouldn't have accomplished so much. Fluids allowed people to

farm, think, trade, and survive.

“Beer in Mesopotamia and Egypt” (Chapters 1 & 2)

1.) How might beer have influenced the transition from hunting and gathering (Paleolithic) to agricultural-based (Neolithic) societies ?

Beer played a big role in the acceptance of agriculture. Humans began growing grains for beer,

and this led to the growing of other crops. Civilizations formed, due to food surplus and specialized

labor. People settled near the farming areas, and crops became part of their daily meals.

2.) What does the story of beer tell you about social and gender roles in ancient SW Asia and Egypt?

Beer was used as a form of currency. It was measured in sila, which is equivalent to one liter.

People were given sila based on their social ranking. Senior officials received the most. Ladies of the

court received a bit less than senior officials. Junior officials received even less. Women and children

received the least. Soldiers, policeman, and scribes also were given sila for their work. This shows that

people were not treated equally.

3.) Would the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt have been as prosperous without the discovery of beer ? Support your answer with evidence from the text.

No, the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt would not be prosperous without beer.

According to the text, bread and beer “were convenient and widespread forms of payment and

currency.” Without a currency, the civilizations would not have been organized, and they wouldn't

“Wine in Greece and Rome” (Chapters 3 & 4)

1.) What does the story of wine tell you about social and gender roles in the Mediterranean world ? How did this change over time ?

The story of wine tells me that the people of Nimrud were not treated equally. Rations of wine

were only given to about six thousand people in the royal household. High officials received the most.

However, every worker of the household would receive wine. This changed when wine became

a drink for Christians. In Greece and Rome, everyone was able to drink wine, including slaves.

2.) What effect does wine have on the development of Christianity and of Islam (separately) ?

Wine had a positive effect on Christianity. According to the Bible, Jesus' first miracle was when

he transformed six jars of water into wine. Also, he often spoke about wine in his parables. At the Last

Supper, he offered wine to his disciples. That lead to the role of wine in the Eucharist, where wine

represents the blood of Christ, and bread represents his body.

On the other hand, wine had a negative effect on the development of Islam. Muslims are not

allowed to drink wine, or an alcoholic beverages. According to tradition, this is because two of

Muhammad's disciples got into a fight during a drinking party. In the Islamic world, alcohol is

associated with evil and Satan.

“Spirits in the Colonial Period” (Chapters 5 & 6)

1.) How did spirits advance/ accelerate colonialism ?

Spirits were able to be traded easily. They were compact, which allowed them to be shipped

without trouble. They were very important goods for trade. When the.

Please join StudyMode to read the full document